Celtic Iron Shield Boss and Hand Grips
An ancient Celtic iron shield boss or umbo of rectangular form with a raised lentoid center, and the two iron arm and hand grips from the interior of the shield.
Ca. 2nd - 1st century BC.
The shield dates to the Roman Republican period. It is of the Gallic type, a large oval wooden shield, which was employed both by the Romans and the Gauls in the 1st and 2nd centuries BC. Later this shield type was developed into the large rectangular Roman legionary scutum of the imperial period.
cf.: P.F. Stary, 'Ursprung und Ausbreitung der eisenzeitlichen Ovalschilde mit spindelförmigem Schildbuckel,' Germania 59, (1981), 287-306, no.43; also a similar example in the Romanian Military Museum, Bucharest.
Formerly in a German private collection.